Thursday, February 23, 2023

Amazing Italy: Enjoying Rovigo and its cuisine with Maria Cristina Buoso (Part 7) - by Maria Teresa De Donato

 Amazing Italy:

Enjoying Rovigo and its cuisine with Maria Cristina Buoso (Part 7)

by Maria Teresa De Donato


Hello dear friends!


Isn't it amazing how our friend and fellow author Maria Cristina Buoso manages to find all these 'pearls' for those who want to visit her city?


Today Maria Cristina revisited us with more artistic, historical, and culinary information regarding her Rovigo.


So let's immerse ourselves in reading this new interview, imagining that we are visiting this city, even if only virtually, enjoying some other delicacies of the local cuisine that you will want to present to us.


Enjoy the reading!




MTDD: Hello, Maria Cristina, and welcome to my Virtual Cultural Salon again. It is always a pleasure to have you as my guest.


MCB: Thanks to you, Maria Teresa. I am delighted to participate in your Amazing Italy column and reveal to the public, also and above all to those unfamiliar with these places, the many 'jewels' that we can find in a medium-sized town like the one where I was born, raised, and in which I still live.



MTDD: Yes, I agree, and thank you for continuing to reveal all her 'secrets' to us.


What will you be showing us today, then?


MCB: Today, we will be visiting the Rovigo Social Theater together.




MTDD: In our previous articles, you mentioned the construction and the various modifications and renovations the Rovigo’s Theater underwent over the centuries.


MCB: No, you're not wrong. Rovigo has an ancient tradition for melodrama in general and opera in particular. In 1683, it was the first show; it was hosted in the hall of the Loggia dei Notai. The first Theater was built on the initiative of Celio Campagnella in 1694.


After a few years, to replace the Campagnella, another larger theater was built by the Manfredinis, which subsequently passed from the Venezzes to the Roncales. At the beginning of the XIX century, the audience had become so large that an even larger theater had to be built. It had come to do three seasons a year; the most important was the autumn one in conjunction with the October Fair and was dedicated to opera, much loved by the people of Rovigo.


In 1816 the Società del Teatro was established, and it was decided to build it near the square where the church of S. Giustina was previously located. The architect from Rovigo Baseggio directed the works until they were completed in 1819.



MTDD: When was this Theater inaugurated?


MCB: The Teatro della Società, this is the original name, was opened to the public on the evening of 3 March 1819 with "L'ombra di Fetonte," but the official inauguration was made the following month with "Adelaide di Borgogna," written primarily for the occasion by Pietro Generali on a libretto by Luigi Romanelli, on 26 April 1819.




(Piazza Garibaldi, Theater on the right)


MTDD: Were there any further restructurings after that period?


MCB: Yes, there were. A fire destroyed that Theater on the night between 21 and 22 January 1902 and of the Sala del Baseggio, built mainly with wood; for acoustic reasons, only the facade and the foyer remained.


The Theater was rebuilt in two years. The project was by the Paduan engineer Daniele Donghi, who kept the front part of the previous building because it was undamaged with the beautiful neoclassical facade and the grand foyer decorated with pleasant paintings. He was the first to experiment with reinforced concrete for the hall, and the result, from an acoustic point of view, was good. The decorations by the Paduan Giovanni Vianello are simple and elegant and place the Rovigo theater among the first in the Veneto region to have adopted the new canons of the liberty style.


The new Teatro Sociale was inaugurated by Pietro Mascagni with "Iris" on 12 October 1904 and can boast of having baptized two of the greatest singers of our century: Beniamino Gigli and Renata Tebaldi.


In 1967 it was included in the small group of "traditional opera houses."

The Municipal Administration took it over in 1964, oversaw its radical restoration, and its management was entrusted to the Department of Culture and Entertainment.


Today, in addition to the opera and ballet season, the Teatro Sociale hosts an established and trendy prose season, a concert season, and numerous other entertainment initiatives also aimed at young people.


For further information, as always, I leave you their links.



MTDD: The history of this Theater is fascinating. I am happy to know that this structure has not only been restored but is still used and continues to play a leading role in the cultural landscape of your beautiful city. Thanks for sharing it with us.


MCB: Yes, we from Rovigo are as happy as we are proud of it.



MTDD: Maria Cristina, do we want to conclude our meeting today with a local recipe?


MCB: Certainly! Today I present to you the Brazadea.










 (Web photo)


This is a recipe linked to my memory; it was a dessert with different shapes, the most classic of them being made with an “s” shape, or the classic donut or even like a large loaf, a dessert that was cut in the morning to dip in caffellatte or in the evening to "pucciarlo" (dip it) in a glass of red wine, usually either the one from the last harvest or the good one from the holidays.


The secret to making it suitable is in the dough. Our grandmothers knew it well, and the one made by them was always the best; it was the dessert for the holidays because, once upon a time, it was not eaten every day, and every family had its own variant.


The origins of this dessert date back to the “S” made in Adria and the brazadela from Ferrara; it is known and loved throughout the polesine and in my city.


I am writing you the recipe in general.





300 gr flour; (usually 00)


100 g sugar; (but you can vary it to your taste)


2 eggs;


0.5 dl of milk;


100 melted butter; (once they also used lard)


1 sachet of baking powder;


a small glass of liqueur to taste;


salt; (a pinch)


granulated sugar; (my mom used to replace it with granulated sugar)


raisins or chocolate chips, if desired (usually, they didn't put them in my house)






Place the flour in a large bowl, make a hole, and put the eggs and sugar in the center. Once this is done, add the melted butter, the milk, the yeast, the small glass of liqueur (or other flavorings, to taste and according to taste, such as anise, for example), a pinch of salt, and the raisins or chocolate chips, if you love this variant.


The consistency to be achieved must be solid enough to be able to create the typical shape of them. The secret, however, is that there are no lumps. First, mix with a fork; when they are well blended, you can use your hands. If it is too sticky, add a little flour. It is, therefore, clear that you will have to knead a lot to obtain a homogeneous product.


Create a long enough loaf and, after slightly moistening it, sprinkle it with granulated sugar. A quick way is to turn it upside down on the board and roll the dough over it so that everything sticks quickly. Put it on the oven plate or in a relatively large pan; if you want, use parchment paper.


Cook at 190° for about 30 minutes. Check the cooking with a toothpick that you will insert in the dessert. If it's dry when you take it out, it's ready.


Enjoy the tasting!


Meravigliosa Italia: Gustando Rovigo e la sua cucina con Maria Cristina Buoso (Settima Parte) - di Maria Teresa De Donato

 Meravigliosa Italia:

Gustando Rovigo e la sua cucina con Maria Cristina Buoso (Settima Parte)

 di Maria Teresa De Donato


Salve a tutti amici!

Non è incredibile come l’amica e collega autrice Maria Cristina Buoso riesca a trovare tutte queste ‘perle’ per coloro che volessero visitare la sua città?

Oggi Maria Cristina è venuta di nuovo a trovarci con altre informazioni artistiche, storiche e culinarie riguardanti la sua Rovigo.

Immergiamoci, dunque, nella lettura di questa nuova intervista immaginando di visitare questa città, anche se solo virtualmente, gustandoci qualche altra prelibatezza della cucina locale che vorrà presentarci.

Buona lettura!


MTDD: Ciao, Maria Cristina, e benvenuta di nuovo in questo mio Salotto Culturale Virtuale. È sempre un piacere averti mia ospite.

MCB: Grazie a te, Maria Teresa. Sono molto felice di partecipare alla tua Rubrica Meravigliosa Italia e rivelare al pubblico, anche e soprattutto a chi non conoscesse questi luoghi, i tanti ‘gioielli’ che si possono trovare in una cittadina di medie dimensioni come quella in cui sono nata, cresciuta ed in cui ancora vivo.


MTDD: Sì, sono d’accordo e ti ringrazio per continuare a svelarci tutti i suoi ‘segreti’.

Cosa ci fai visitare oggi, dunque?

MCB: Oggi visiteremo insieme il Teatro sociale di Rovigo.



MTDD: Se ricordo bene, nei precedenti articoli avevi menzionato la costruzione e le varie modifiche e ristrutturazioni cui è stato sottoposto il Teatro di Rovigo nel corso dei secoli, o sbaglio?

MCB: No, non ti sbagli. Rovigo ha una tradizione antica per il melodramma in generale e in particolare per la lirica. Nel 1683, credo che fosse il primo spettacolo, fu ospitato nella sala della Loggia dei Notai. Il primo teatro fu costruito, per iniziativa di Celio Campagnella, nel 1694.

Dopo qualche anno, in sostituzione del Campagnella, fu costruito dai Manfredini un altro teatro più grande, che passò successivamente dai Venezze ai Roncale. All'inizio del XIX sec. il pubblico era diventato talmente vasto che si dovette costruire un teatro ancora più grande. Si era arrivati a fare tre stagioni all’anno, quella più importante era quella autunnale in concomitanza con la Fiera d’ottobre, ed era dedicata alla lirica,  molto amata dai rodigini.

Nel 1816 venne costituita la Società del Teatro e si decise di costruirlo vicino alla piazza dove prima si trovava la chiesa di S. Giustina. L’architetto rodigino Baseggio diresse i lavori fino al completamento dell'opera nel 1819.


MTDD: Quando fu inaugurato questo teatro?

MCB: Il Teatro della Società, questo il nome originale, fu aperto al pubblico la sera del 3 marzo del 1819 con "L'ombra di Fetonte”, ma l'inaugurazione ufficiale fu fatta il mese successivo con “Adelaide di Borgogna”, scritta appositamente per la circostanza da Pietro Generali su libretto di Luigi Romanelli, il 26 aprile 1819.

(Piazza Garibaldi, Teatro sulla Destra)


MTDD: Ci furono ulteriori ristrutturazioni dopo quel periodo?

MCB: Sì, ce ne furono. Un incendio, infatti, distrusse quel teatro nella notte tra il 21 e 22 gennaio 1902 e della sala del Baseggio, costruita in prevalenza con  il legno, per esigenze di acustica, rimasero solo la facciata ed il ridotto.

Il Teatro venne ricostruito in due anni. Il progetto era dell'ingegnere padovano Daniele Donghi, che mantenne la parte anteriore del precedente edificio perché indenne con la bella facciata neoclassica ed il fastoso foyer decorato con gradevoli pitture. Per la sala, fu il primo a sperimentare l'uso del cemento armato, il risultato, dal punto di vista dell'acustica, fu buono. Le decorazioni del padovano Giovanni Vianello, sono semplici ed eleganti e collocano il teatro rodigino tra i primi del Veneto ad aver adottato i nuovi canoni dello stile liberty.

Il nuovo Teatro Sociale fu inaugurato da Pietro Mascagni con "Iris" il 12 ottobre 1904 e può vantare di aver tenuto a battesimo due dei maggiori cantanti del nostro secolo: Beniamino Gigli e Renata Tebaldi.

Nel 1967 è stato inserito nel ristretto gruppo dei "Teatri lirici di tradizione".

L'Amministrazione Comunale lo ha rilevato nel 1964, ne ha curato il radicale restauro e la gestione è stata affidata all'Assessorato alla Cultura e Spettacolo.


Oggi, oltre alla stagione lirica e balletto, il Teatro Sociale ospita un'affermata e seguitissima stagione di prosa, una stagione concertistica e numerose altre iniziative di spettacolo rivolte anche ai giovani.

Per maggiori approfondimenti vi lascio come sempre i link.


MTDD: È molto interessante la storia di questo Teatro. Grazie per averla condivisa con noi. Sono felice di sapere che questa struttura sia stata non solo restaurata ma sempre utilizzata e che continui a ricoprire un ruolo di primo piano nel panorama culturale della vostra bella città.

MCB: Sì, infatti, anche noi rodigini ne siamo tanto felici quanto orgogliosi.


MTDD: Maria Cristina, vogliamo concludere anche oggi questo nostro incontro con una ricetta locale?

MCB: Certamente! Oggi vi presento la Brazadea.





(Foto Web)


Questa è una ricetta legata alla mia memoria, era un dolce dalle forme diverse, la più classica ad esse, o la classica ciambella o anche come un grande pane, un dolce che veniva tagliato al mattino per inzupparlo nel caffellatte o alla sera per “pucciarlo” (intingerlo) in  un bicchiere di vino rosso, di solito o quello dell’ultima vendemmia o quello buono delle feste.

Il segreto perché venga bene è nell’impasto. Le nostre nonne lo sapevano bene ed era sempre il più buono quello fatto da loro ed era il dolce delle feste perché una volta non si mangiava tutti i giorni e ogni famiglia aveva la sua variante.

Le origini di questo dolce risalgono alla ESSE fatta ad Adria ma anche alla brazadela ferrarese; è conosciuto e amato in tutto il polesine oltre che nella mia città.  

Vi scrivo in generale la ricetta.



300 gr farina; (di solito 00)

100 gr zucchero; (ma lo potete variare a vostro gusto)

2 uova;

0,5 dl di latte;

100 burro fuso; (una volta usavano anche lo strutto)

1 bustina di lievito per dolci;

bicchierino liquore a piacere;

sale; (un pizzico)

zucchero a granella; (mia mamma lo sostituiva con zucchero semolato)

uvetta o gocce di cioccolato, se si desidera (a casa mia di solito non si mettevano)




In una grande terrina depositare la farina, fare un buco e al centro mettere le uova e lo zucchero. Una volta fatto questo, si aggiungerà il burro fuso, il latte, il lievito, il bicchierino di liquore (o altri aromi, a piacere e a seconda dei gusti, come l’anice ad esempio), un pizzico di sale e l’uvetta o le gocce di cioccolato, se siete amanti di tale variante.

Qualora risultasse essere troppo appiccicosa, aggiungete un po’ di farina. La consistenza da raggiungere dovrà essere abbastanza solida, in modo da riuscire a creare la tipica forma ad esse. Il segreto, ad ogni modo, è che non ci siano grumi. Prima si mescola con una forchetta e quando sono tutti ben amalgamati si passa ad usare le mani. È chiaro, quindi, che dovrete impastare parecchio per ottenere un prodotto omogeneo.

Create un filone abbastanza lungo e, dopo averlo leggermente inumidito, cospargetelo dello zucchero a granella. Un modo veloce è quello di rovesciarlo sulla tavola e rotolarci sopra l’impasto, in modo che si attacchi tutto velocemente. Mettetelo sulla placca del forno oppure in una teglia abbastanza capiente, se volete potete usare anche della carta per forno.

Cucinate a 190° per circa 30 minuti. Controllate la cottura con uno stecchino che inserirete nel dolce. Se quando lo estraete è asciutto allora è pronto.

Buon assaggio.



Wunderschönes Italien: Genießt Rovigo und seine Küche mit Maria Cristina Buoso (Teil 7) - von Maria Teresa De Donato

 Wunderschönes Italien:

Genießt Rovigo und seine Küche mit Maria Cristina Buoso (Teil 7)

von Maria Teresa De Donato

Hallo liebe Freunde!

Ist es nicht erstaunlich, wie es unsere Freundin und Autorin Maria Cristina Buoso gelingt, all diese “Perlen” für diejenigen zu finden, die ihre Stadt besuchen möchten?

Heute lässt Maria Cristina uns erneut mit weiteren künstlerischen, historischen und kulinarischen Informationen zu ihrem Rovigo.

Tauchen wir also in die Lektüre dieses neuen Interviews ein und stellen uns vor, dass wir diese Stadt besuchen, wenn auch nur virtuell, und einige andere Köstlichkeiten der lokalen Küche genießen, die er uns präsentieren wird.

Viel Spaß beim Lesen!


MTDD: Hallo, Maria Cristina, und herzlich willkommen in meinem virtuellen kulturellen Salon. Es ist immer eine Freude, Dich als meinen Gast zu haben.

MCB: Ich danke Dir, Maria Teresa. Ich freue mich sehr, an Deiner Kolumne Wunderschönes Italien teilzunehmen und der Öffentlichkeit, auch und vor allem denjenigen, die mit diesen Orten nicht vertraut sind, die vielen “Juwelen” zu offenbaren, die wir finden können, in einer mittelgroßen Stadt wie meiner wo ich geboren wurde, aufgewachsen bin und in der ich immer noch lebe.


MTDD: Ja, ich stimme zu und danke Dir, dass Du uns weiterhin all seine “Geheimnisse” offenbarst.

Was zeigst Du uns denn heute?

MCB: Heute besuchen wir gemeinsam das Rovigo Teatro Sociale.



MTDD: Wenn ich mich richtig erinnere, hast Du in den vorherigen Artikeln den Bau und die verschiedenen Umbauten und Renovierungen erwähnt, denen das Teatro di Rovigo im Laufe der Jahrhunderte unterzogen wurde, richtig?

MCB: Nein, Du liegst nicht falsch. Rovigo hat eine alte Tradition für das Melodrama im Allgemeinen und für die Oper im Besonderen. 1683, ich glaube, es war die erste Aufführung, fand sie im Saal der Loggia dei Notai statt. Das erste Theater wurde 1694 auf Initiative von Celio Campagnella gebaut.

Nach einigen Jahren wurde anstelle des Campagnella ein weiteres größeres Theater von den Manfredini gebaut, das später von den Venezzes an die Roncales überging. Zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts war das Publikum so groß geworden, dass ein noch größeres Theater gebaut werden musste. Es hatte drei Spielzeiten im Jahr, die wichtigste war die Herbstsaison in Verbindung mit der Oktobermesse, und war der Oper gewidmet, die von den Einwohnern von Rovigo sehr geliebt wurde.

1816 wurde die Società del Teatro gegründet und es wurde beschlossen, sie in der Nähe des Platzes zu errichten, auf dem sich zuvor die Kirche S. Giustina befand. Der Architekt aus Rovigo Baseggio leitete die Arbeiten bis zur Fertigstellung der Arbeiten im Jahr 1819.


MTDD: Wann wurde dieses Theater eingeweiht?

MCB: Das Teatro della Società, so der ursprüngliche Name, wurde am Abend des 3. März 1819 mit "L'ombra di Fetonte" der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich gemacht, aber die offizielle Einweihung erfolgte im folgenden Monat mit "Adelaide di Borgogna", speziell für diesen Anlass von Pietro Generali nach einem Libretto von Luigi Romanelli, am 26. April 1819 geschrieben.



 (Piazza Garibaldi, Theater rechts)


MTDD: Gab es nach dieser Zeit weitere Umstrukturierungen?

MCB: Ja, das gab es. Tatsächlich zerstörte ein Brand in der Nacht vom 21. auf den 22. Januar 1902 dieses Theater und von der Sala del Baseggio, die aus akustischen Gründen hauptsächlich aus Holz gebaut war, blieben nur die Fassade und das Foyer erhalten.

Das Theater wurde in zwei Jahren wieder aufgebaut. Das Projekt stammte von dem Paduaner Ingenieur Daniele Donghi, der den vorderen Teil des Vorgängerbaus behielt, weil er mit der schönen neoklassizistischen Fassade und dem prächtigen Foyer, das mit hübschen Gemälden geschmückt war, unbeschädigt blieb. Für die Halle experimentierte er als erster mit der Verwendung von Stahlbeton, das Ergebnis war aus akustischer Sicht gut. Die Dekorationen des Paduaners Giovanni Vianello sind einfach und elegant und machen das Rovigo-Theater zu einem der ersten in der Region Venetien, das die neuen Kanonen des Liberty-Stils übernommen hat.

Das neue Teatro Sociale wurde am 12. Oktober 1904 von Pietro Mascagni mit “Iris” eingeweiht und kann sich rühmen, zwei der größten Sänger unseres Jahrhunderts getauft zu haben: Beniamino Gigli und Renata Tebaldi.

1967 wurde es in die kleine Gruppe der “traditionellen Opernhäuser” aufgenommen.

Die Stadtverwaltung übernahm es 1964, beaufsichtigte seine radikale Restaurierung und seine Verwaltung wurde dem Ministerium für Kultur und Unterhaltung anvertraut.

Heute beherbergt das Teatro Sociale neben der Opern- und Ballettsaison eine etablierte und sehr beliebte Prosasaison, eine Konzertsaison und zahlreiche andere Unterhaltungsinitiativen, die sich auch an junge Leute richten.

Für weitere Informationen hinterlasse ich Euch wie immer die Links.


MTDD: Die Geschichte dieses Theaters ist sehr interessant. Danke, dass Du es mit uns teilst. Ich freue mich zu wissen, dass dieses Bauwerk nicht nur restauriert, sondern weiterhin genutzt wurde und eine führende Rolle in der Kulturlandschaft Eurer schönen Stadt spielt.

MCB: Ja, wir von Rovigo sind in der Tat so glücklich wie stolz darauf.


MTDD: Maria Cristina, wollen wir unser Treffen heute mit einem lokalen Rezept abschließen?

MCB: Sicherlich! Heute stelle ich euch die Brazadea vor.



 (Foto Web)


Dies ist ein Rezept, das mit meiner Erinnerung verbunden ist, es war ein Dessert mit verschiedenen Formen, die klassischsten von ihnen, oder der klassische Donut oder sogar wie ein großes Brot, ein Dessert, das morgens geschnitten wurde, um es in Caffellatte oder in zu dippen abends in ein Glas Rotwein zum “pucciarlo” (eintauchen), meist entweder den der letzten Ernte oder den guten aus den Ferien.

Das Geheimnis, es gut zu machen, liegt im Teig. Unsere Großmütter kannten es gut und das von ihnen gemachte war immer das Beste und es war das Dessert für die Feiertage, weil es früher nicht jeden Tag gegessen wurde und jede Familie ihre eigene Variante hatte.

Die Ursprünge dieses Desserts gehen auf die in Adria hergestellte ESSE, aber auch auf die Brazadela aus Ferrara zurück; er ist in ganz polesine sowie in meiner Stadt bekannt und beliebt.

Ich schreibe Euch das Rezept im Allgemeinen.



300 g Mehl; (normalerweise 00)

100 g Zucker; (aber ihr könnt es nach ihrem Geschmack variieren)

2 Eier;

0,5 dl Milch;

100 geschmolzene Butter; (früher wurde auch Schmalz verwendet)

1 Beutel Backpulver;

kleines Glas Likör nach Geschmack;

Salz; (eine Prise)

Kristallzucker; (meine Mutter hat es früher durch Kristallzucker ersetzt)

Rosinen oder Schokoladenstückchen, falls gewünscht (normalerweise haben sie sie nicht in mein Haus gestellt)




Das Mehl in eine große Schüssel geben; ein Loch machen und die Eier und den Zucker in die Mitte geben. Anschließend die geschmolzene Butter, die Milch, die Hefe, das kleine Glas Likör (oder je nach Geschmack andere Gewürze, wie zum Beispiel Anis), eine Prise Salz und die Rosinen oder Schokoladenstückchen hinzufügen, wenn Ihr diese Variante liebt.

Wenn es zu klebrig ist, etwas Mehl hinzufügen. Die zu erzielende Konsistenz muss fest genug sein, um die für sie typische Form erzeugen zu können. Das Geheimnis ist jedoch, dass es keine Klumpen gibt. Mischt zuerst mit einer Gabel und wenn sie alle gut vermischt sind, könnt Ihr Ihre Hände benutzen. Es ist daher klar, dass Ihr viel kneten müsst, um ein homogenes Produkt zu erhalten.

Macht Ihr einen ausreichend langen Laib und bestreut Ihr ihn nach leichtem Anfeuchten mit Kristallzucker. Eine schnelle Möglichkeit ist, es umgedreht auf das Brett zu legen und den Teig darüber zu rollen, damit alles schnell haftet. Legt Ihr es auf die Ofenplatte oder in eine größere Pfanne, wenn Ihr möchtet, könnt Ihr auch Backpapier verwenden.

Bei 190° etwa 30 Minuten garen. Überprüft Ihr mit einem Zahnstocher das Kochen, den Ihr in das Dessert steckt. Wenn es beim Herausnehmen trocken ist, ist es fertig.

Fröhliche Verkostung!


Saturday, February 18, 2023

Ludwig van Beethoven (Bonn, December 16, 1770 - Vienna, March 26, 1827)


Of Flemish origin (the grandfather had settled in Bonn in 1732 from Malines), his father Johann was a singer at the Court of the Archbishop of Cologne. Ludwig first studied with his father and performed in public as a pianist already in 1778, then deepened his musical knowledge with C. G. Neefe. Soon active in the court theater, in 1789, he enrolled in philosophy at the University of Bonn. In 1787, a trip to Vienna and a decisive meeting with Mozart radically influenced his training as a musician; In the meantime, a period of sad family conditions began for him. In 1787 the mother died, and he had to maintain the maintenance of the alcoholic father, using him as a violist in the court orchestra.

In the Austrian capital, he studied with Haydn, with Schenk, and finally with Albrechtsberger, but also with Salieri as regards the in-depth analysis of vocality Italian. Moreover, in the environment of Bonn, he intertwines profitable contacts with patrons and artists who keep the passion for his art alive in him; And for Haydn's intervention, he knows during a short stop in Bonn, he was allowed to go to Vienna again in 1792. He will no longer return from Vienna to his hometown (his father died in the same year as his transplant in Austria).

Meanwhile, thanks to the protection of the count of Waldstein, who had known him in Bonn, he comes into contact with the best-known names of the Viennese aristocracy, including the Lichnowski and the Lobkowitz. In 1795 he held the first public concert, immediately imposing himself on the qualities of his interpretations, and in 1796 he made a tour of concerts in Germany and Bohemia.

But with the beginning of hearing disorders, which in 1802 will come to throw it on the verge of suicide (we remember the famous testament of Heiligenstadt), he tends to isolate himself more and more, while even beyond the borders, his fame as a composer is affirmed. After 1800 his production acquired a very rapid rhythm, and in 1808 he was ensured, thanks to the interest of some noble patron, an annual pension. But the conspicuous pension soon sees itself reduced to a miserable figure following inflation. At the same time, with the death of his brother Kaspar, he has entrusted to him the protection of his nephew Karl, a reckless young man who will be a source of ongoing serious concerns for him. His fame expanded increasingly in Europe, the publishers competed for his works, and he is considered a little of national glory. But deafness worsened (in the last years of his life, it was now possible to communicate with him only in writing), Karl obtained a series of boredoms, and in 1816-17 severe bronchitis undermined his solid fiber. In 1815 he appeared for the last time in public as a pianist; Since then, he closed himself more and more, while in recent years, he was oppressed by some financial concern, even if his works continued to be sought by the publishers and if the concerts of his Music met a favor that no other composer had ever reached before since then. In 1826 Karl attempted suicide; In the same year, after living in a room in the countryside with his brother Johann, Beethoven returned to Vienna under an infuriating snowstorm and fell ill with pneumonia. Neglected, evil worsens, and in winter, the musician must undergo a series of operations: but the joint hydropysois with a severe lung inflammation struggles after three days spent in almost total unconsciousness. A few days before he died, he had received a visit from Schubert, who loved him and would follow him a year later in the grave.

In the history of Music, Beethoven is an absolutely new man and artist. In life, he always sought, and desperately, freedom and independence. Formed precisely in the years in which the French revolution dictated humanity's laws

New to brotherhood and equality, he feels the artist must work for all his fellow men. So he was the first to break any subordination relationship with the aristocracy. First, he lived in his work, which he offered to his publishers, pretending to be compensated for his worth. While all his predecessors, up to Mozart and Haydn, had lived and worked in the context of a restricted circle, subsidized by their masters and real theaters, Beethoven impetuously seeks contact with an increasingly large audience.

This attitude of unconditional release from a world that already began to decay at the beginning of the 1800s reflects in his life and his relationships with men. He was a difficult person, and only very few could enter with him into friendship relationships, even if ever of true intimacy. In need of love like few others, paradoxically, he could not find him even with women: in his life, they passed through dozens (we will only remember Giulietta Guicciardi, Therese von Brunswick, the countess Endody, Bettina Brentano, and the singer Amalie von Sebald), but In no could find the partner of life.

And it was undoubtedly a boundless need for freedom that prompted him to isolate himself more and more from the world to entrust his message to humanity, which led him to move into an unreal dimension that made his life an adventure of the most unusual and, in some ways, incredible that history has been handed down to us. In Music, however, the disorder of life and the grip of character are resolved in simple and direct communication dictated by a very high brilliant force. In the first works, he absorbs and debates the stylistic problem imposed by his great predecessors, Haydn and Mozart. When he is twenty -two, Mozart is already dead, and Haydn has come to the most sumptuous period of his maturity: the young Beethoven now sees the world with a new eye, vivified and stimulated by the significant historical events that accompany its training (the French revolution first of all ), and at the same time immerses himself in the achievements that Mozart and Haydn had done to then personally live them with a different expressive charge. The first piano sonatas, the first quartets, and the first two symphonies (but whale-swing exceptions as of now, for example, in the Sonata in do minor pathetic piano op. 13, which is from 1798) thus reflect a sensitivity still linked to the Music of the 18th century. However, these works, such as Rococo, can never be assigned to a specific stylistic category. But in these works, there is tireless research, the development of a very personal style that gradually will be brightly enunciated in the most fabulous creations of virility.

Beethoven's name is inextricably linked to that of the form-Son. It is in this form, handed down to him by the School of Mannheim, by C. Ph. E. Bach, and other musicians from the 18th century, which finds the expressive and constructive stimulus more congenial to him.

He coined the two main themes of the Sonata with grandiose plastic capacity, and he adds peaks before him inaccessible in the art of development. In the effects of him, conflicts dominated by a higher balance are unleashed; in his themes of him, there is a lyricism that predicts that of subsequent romanticism. Above all, this formal element predominates in the works of the middle period, in most symphonies and pianistic sonatas, and in the quartets that precede the last ones, where a new world of dizzying formal and expressive research is inaugurated.

Beethoven's work is a cosmos in which man finds himself immediately reflected in his more impetuous passions and his more noble feelings. In Beethoven, he finally speaks all humanity: the elementary conciseness of his themes and developments brings him close to the man of the street, to the mass that had been practically excluded - if the phenomenon of the theatrical work is except - from Music. And in the middle works, this impetus of brotherhood, of communication with all their fellow men, to raise them and give them a precise awareness of men, comes to the surface. Finally, the form also breaks, leaving the green light, on the edge of a technique now transcendental, to the imagination in its autonomous shape, to the pure invention that goes beyond every bond and every formal scheme. This is the case of the last quartets, the ninth symphony, the latest piano ratings, and shocking works in their expressive radicality, disconcerting for the height to which the artistic expression comes in them. Here Beethoven hooks up in unexplored spheres; it opens to music possibilities that only after many decades will posterity fully understand their genius.

The orchestral compositions still have a non -negligible importance of the 11 overtures that Beethoven wrote for comedies and ballets and his only theatrical work, Fidelio. Keep in mind that even the Beethoven obiture adopted the form-Son, validating with the authority of its genius a structure that was being affirmed at the end of the 19th century and that sostered substantially from the Italian-type obiture (A. Scarlatti) or French (Lulli).

The creatures of Prometeo op. 43 (Die Geschopfe Des Prometheus):

The "Ouverture" at the ballet denotes Beethoven's youth style characteristics. It is a brilliant piece, admirable for the incessant rhythmic life, almost an elegant and smooth game of fresh and youthful musical ideas.

King Stefano op. 117 (1811):

The Ouverture, which is the most energetic page, is introduced by four dry, solemn, archaizing rings and is then conceived on two musical ideas that alternate with each other and repeat with instrumental changes and, therefore, of complexion, The first mainly lyrical and exotic ("Alla Forgarese" writes Beethoven when he resumes this theme in the song n. 4, the elegant chorus of women who accompany the bride) and the second impetuous and war. The style and character of the other songs are adequate with skill but also in shape, mostly impersonally solemn, to stage needs.

The ruins of Athens op. 113 (1811)

The allegorical drama The ruins of Athens presents symphonic writing. The decadence of Greece, which languishes under Turkish domination, and of Athens, in which she returns after an absence of two thousand years of age. Today in concert halls, the Ouverture is often performed in which all the main themes of the work are organized in the form-Son. Minerva, who received forgiveness from Jupiter, is represented, in the introduction, Andante with motorcycles, by an ascending theme detached that it reaches the violins and from the following reason entrusted to the arches, which anticipate the second song, the duet between the Greek and the Greek, while the following two martial themes, exposed in the calendar shade of Sol major allude to the agreement between the Hungarian people and its rulers. The next, cheerful but not too much, in form-Sonata, does not present any thematic reference to the other stage music.

Egmont Ouverture op. 84 (1809):

Goethe's "Ouverture" has the character of a simple introduction to the drama, of which he seems to reflect fans of freedom, resolving himself in a jubilation song.

Coriolano "Ouverture" op. 62 (1807):

Composed, in parallel with the fifth symphony, in 1807, the Ouverture in Coriolano (a tragedy of Heinrich Collin now forgotten) is one of the darkest and most tragic compositions that the musician has conceived. It indelibly enrolls in the listener's memory for the drama of the initial engraved, for the restlessness of the first yearning theme, for the noble lyricism of the second theme in Mi Bemolle (the Ouverture is in do minor, the same shade as the fifth ). After a series of contrasts and conflicts that are pressing without requiency throughout the piece, it ends on the tragic engraved of the beginning, which is extinct with a left effect in the serious register of the arches.

The onomastic festival op. 115 (1815):

The Zur Namensfeier Ouverture (so called by the note in charge of Beethoven to the autographed score, from which it appears that the composition was completed "in the month of the harvest of 1814, on the evening of the honor of our emperor", that is, on 4 October, feast of San Francesco) is one of the first examples of a concert by concerts, a "genre" flowery at the beginning of the nineteenth century, as a consequence of the evolution of the "Academy," as an aristocratic musical treatment of an eminent chamber legal regime (even if in It was performed the concerts for Piano di Mozart and the Haydn symphonies) with a public demonstration of spectacular nature and massive and composite constitution.

The evening, lasting several hours, could include a pair of symphonies, a concerto for solo instrument and orchestra, an oratory, or a cantata, all preceded by an ad hoc symphonic introduction and concluded by the improvisation of the author on the piano: Pantagruelica Sbandigione musical, today difficult to dispose of.

The consecration of the house op. 124 (Die Weihe des Houses), "Ouverture" (1822):

It was composed for the inauguration of the new Josephstadter Theater. It is a piece conceived in an almost Handelian spirit, an actual "occasion" composition in the noblest and majestic sense of the term. Needless to seek dramatic conflicts: this Music takes place like a sound tapestry, going from a "majestic and supported" solemn imprint to a more lively fanfare that flows into a bright and charming escape. The musician's hand is also happy and, above all, in the counterpoint parts. To them is added a sumptuous treatment of the orchestra which concludes the piece in a truly monumental way, in a blazing do major.

Leonora n. 1, n. 2 and n. 3:

The three "ouvertures" Leonora was composed for the first and second version

of Fidelio. The first does not satisfy the author, who, in the same year of the representation of Fidelio (1805), prepared a second, While the best-known version is the third, composed for the resumption of the work in 1806. It is one of the most varied and compelling works created by Beethoven in the symphonic field. The formal complexity, which escapes any attempt to classify, is equal only to the wealth of ideas that anticipate and symbolize the fundamental elements of the drama with great expression. Thus we find it condensed within a few minutes, the characteristic themes of some important characters of Fidelio: in the transition from slow times to cheerful or rapid ones, in the mysterious fanfares who suddenly interrupt the flow of Music, in the exultation of the central theme of the Allegro (which starts after an adage of vast proportions), Leonora n. 3 is a wide-ranging page, vivid, penetrating, and spontaneous like few others of this kind.

Fidelio op. 72c:

In 1814, recurring a new version of Fidelio to the Viennese public, Beethoven wrote a fourth ouverture, which is also normally performed today to introduce the work. With the three Leonore, this ouverture has nothing to do. Here, the composer does not use themes taken from the work, and his incisive traits of drama are resolved on a substantially rapid and brilliant conception of conception.